Temporal trends in energy and macronutrient distribution in meals eaten by children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

Suzana Almoosawi, Victoria Cribb, Pauline Emmett, Alison Lennox

Abstract


Cross-sectional studies have reported associations between frequency of eating, snacking, breakfast skipping, night-eating and obesity.  However, there have been few investigations of longitudinal trends in time-of-day of energy and macronutrient intake.  We investigated trends in time-of-day of energy and macronutrient intake in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Diet was assessed using 3d estimated diaries at ages 10 and 13 years. Diaries were divided into seven time slots: breakfast, mid-morning, lunch, mid-afternoon, dinner, late evening and extras. Trends in energy and macronutrient intake at different eating occasions between ages 10 and 13 years were assessed using linear mixed models after adjustment for age, maternal employment and child’s BMI.  Lunch and dinner were found to contribute the greatest proportion of energy and macronutrient intake in both girls and boys at both ages.  However, there was a shift in time-of-day of energy and macronutrient intake for both sexes, with greater proportions of intake between meals (mid-morning, late evening, extras) and lower proportion of intake at main meals (breakfast, dinner) at age 13 years compared to 10 years.  Factors contributing to changes in energy and nutrient distribution warrant investigation and the implications of such changes in time-of-day of energy and nutrient intake on long-term health remains to be examined.


Keywords


circadian rhythm, eating profile, ALSPAC, prospective study

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14301/llcs.v7i1.292

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